Journal of Law and Society, Vol. The Sexual Offences Act introduced a new statutory offence of "sexual activity in a public lavatory" into English law. Although written as a gender-neutral offence, the statute was formulated and enacted on the basis of concerns about male homosexual sexual activity in public lavatories "cottaging".
This paper examines the justifications for, and implications of, the legislation. It considers the main arguments made in support of the offence and situates these within established moral, legal, and social debates about homosexuality.
The paper considers the relationship between conceptions of public and private morality in relation to the legal regulation of homosexual sex. It goes on to explore the complex nature of regulating public sex in relation to sexual practices which often maintain high degrees of privacy.
The final part of the paper argues that the legislation is largely in contradiction with the realities of police work and contemporary law enforcement. Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation.
Their situation remains difficult. Observing the situation in terms of income, hereto the rich, the powerful and the politically influential may have made gains but the ordinary folk continue to depend on foreign remittances.
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In the rural areas, young people have left, putting the work in the fields in serious crisis. Overall, there has been no improvement in the income level of the people. The participants observed that while some democratic achievements have been made in the area of development of the basic institutions, there is no attempt at all to bring about comprehensive reforms.
The talk of the democratic reforms has not translated into efforts to improve the basic institutional structure of justice in Nepal. There were lengthy discussions on the situation of the police. The participants concluded that in Nepal there is hardly any discussion focusing on improving the policing system in the country. It remains very backward and human rights abuses form an integral part of its functioning.
This includes, the routine use of torture, abuse of arrest and detention, abuse of power and extrajudicial killings in particular districts.
There is no independent system of investigation into the complaints of abuses by the police. The existing system of investigations is restricted to internal inquiries done by the police authorities themselves, in spite of political promises to bring about an independent investigation system.
Several lawyers felt that they are not being respected by the police when they make interventions on behalf of their clients. Instead, political or other influence is needed to get anything done. Their work is often being obstructed and some lawyers reported having faced physical assault.
Lowenstein, who has died aged 79, was an oral historian and author who was driven by her belief in the power and importance of the stories of individuals and their direct experiences. Always an activist, she kept constant watch over the shifting fortunes of the working class. She was passionate about politics, workers' rights and working-class history, and was a fierce campaigner against the capitalist classes, bureaucracies and governments of all persuasions.
It's like saying I'm not political. My mother took me to my first demonstration - an all-night vigil outside Melbourne's Pentridge Jail - at the age of seven, carrying a sandwich board around my neck and holding a candle, protesting against the execution of Ronald Ryan, the last man to be hanged in Australia, in The union movement's slogan "Solidarity Forever" ran deep in her veins.
Her mother's family were Quakers, overseas missionaries and Fabian socialists; her father's were Presbyterian ministers, bush missionaries and choir masters. Her father was a romantic Australian nationalist whose family went from prosperity to dire poverty after drought, business folly and the depression of the s but were readers and musicians.
Her mother was artistic and musical but in revolt against her wealthy Bendigo family. She won a scholarship in the same year to Box Hill Grammar School, run by a principal with Trotskyite leanings who belonged to a Methodist socialist group.
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At 15 she joined her sister Shirley and brother John in Melbourne's New Theatre and the Eureka Youth League where she discovered radical writing, theatre, art and class politics.