New Europe, Old Jails

List of jail and prison museums
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Since he never got farther than the fifth grade, the year-old Pullins has spent nearly as much time behind bars as he did in school. Cells designed for two inmates often house four or five, forcing some to sleep on mattresses on the floor. That same year, authorities also approved more regular meetings under a program known as Cell Extremism, or CelEx, in which members of the intelligence services meet with prison directors to share information on inmates, both those seen as vulnerable to radicalization and those seen as likely to radicalize others. The new European and international arrest warrant against Mr Puigdemont was issued on grounds of sedition and misuse of public funds. Followers of the Islamic State adhere to an extreme variation of Salafism.

The Spanish government stepped in and fired the Catalan regional government, with prosecutors later bringing charges. At the center of the prosecutors' case was the Oct. The "Yes" vote won, but because it was an illegal ballot most voters didn't turn out and the vote count was considered of dubious value. The Catalan Parliament, however, unilaterally declared independence three weeks later, triggering Spain's worst political crisis in decades. Seven separatist leaders allegedly involved in the events, including ousted Catalan President Carles Puigdemont, fled the country and are regarded by Spain as fugitives.

How horrible," Puigdemont tweeted Monday. For the future of our sons and daughters.

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The trial featured over witnesses, including former Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, and 50 nationally televised hearings. Defense lawyers argued that the leaders of the secessionist movement were carrying out the will of roughly half of the 7. The Catalan leaders — jailed for nearly two years while their case was heard — have grown into powerful symbols for the separatists. Many sympathizers wear yellow ribbons pinned to their clothes as a sign of protest.

The verdict will almost certainly become another rallying point for the separatist cause, which is going through its most difficult period in years with its most charismatic leaders behind bars or abroad. The Catalan separatist movement's two main political parties disagree on the next moves, and the grassroots organizations that have driven the movement are starting to criticize the lack of political progress. The verdict also came less than a month before Spain holds a general election on Nov. X Close with photo without photo Print. Published As Turkuvaz, we are processing your personal data, and at the same time, using our best efforts to protect your data by taking the technical and administrative measures prescribed by laws.

You may find the informative text in respect of your personal data processed, by visiting the data policy page. The prison terms given to the Catalan independence leaders were not the 25 years prosecutors had sought in some cases, but they are nevertheless seen as an outrage by many Catalans.

Others used the hashtag to post footage of students marching in protest against the sentences moments after they were announced on Monday. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website

Meanwhile, both FC Barcelona and the Catalan football federation condemned the prison sentences and called for "dialogue and negotiation" to resolve the situation. The federation added that it had suspended all football matches in the region to show solidarity with the leaders and their families. In , police and protesters clashed in the streets when Catalonia's pro-independence leaders went ahead with the referendum, which had been ruled illegal by Spain's constitutional court.

The nine leaders, who had already spent months in pre-trial detention, were acquitted of a more serious charge of rebellion. During their closing arguments in June, defence lawyers told the court their clients denied the charges of rebellion and sedition, but admitted to the lesser charge of disobedience which could have seen them be banned from public office but avoid prison.

Prosecutors argued that the unilateral declaration of independence was an attack on the Spanish state and accused some of those involved of a serious act of rebellion.

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They also said that separatist leaders had misused public funds while organising the referendum. Prosecutors argued the leaders had carried out a "perfectly planned strategy Forcadell, the former parliament speaker who read out the independence result on 27 October , was also accused of allowing parliamentary debates on independence despite warnings from Spain's Constitutional Court. Some of the leaders, speaking to the BBC ahead of the trial, said the proceedings were political in nature.

Any violence, they said, was on the part of police and committed against voters in a crackdown which made headlines around the world.

Madrid stepped in to impose its rule on the region, and several Catalan leaders fled or were arrested. Catalan nationalists have long complained that their region, which has a distinct history dating back almost 1, years, sends too much money to poorer parts of Spain, as taxes are controlled by Madrid. The wealthy region is home to about 7. In September, a march in Barcelona in support of Catalonia's independence from Spain drew crowds of about , people - one of the lowest turnouts in the eight-year history of the annual rally.

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Boris Johnson promises to unite the country by getting Brexit done and to boost nurse numbers by 50, Violent clashes erupt as Spanish court jails Catalonia leaders 14 October Related Topics Catalonia independence protests. Media playback is unsupported on your device. More on this story. Catalan Football Federation suspends matches after separatist leaders jailed. Video Catalonia protesters: 'It feels like we're all being tried'. Catalonia Spain: Barcelona Diada annual march draws smaller crowd.

Video Police arrest Catalan separatists in dawn raids over 'attack plot'.

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Video Catalan jailed MPs enter Spanish parliament. Catalan separatists defiant on final trial day in Madrid. Top Stories Tory manifesto 'to forge a new Britain' - Johnson Boris Johnson promises to unite the country by getting Brexit done and to boost nurse numbers by 50,

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