They were championed by the art critic and writer John Ruskin. The Tubular Bridge provided a rail link from the mainland of north Wales, near Bangor, across to Anglesey and on to Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. Its designer, Robert Stephenson, constructed two main spans with rectangular iron tubes feet long. The bridge itself was 1, feet overall and novel in construction, since the box sections were constructed on shore and then floated into the straits to be lifted into place. In addition to the population census of England and Wales, a census was taken of places of worship.
Awareness of this numerical superiority greatly encouraged the demand for the disestablishment of the Church of England in Wales.
Partly due to the opposition of the Conservative party and the House of Lords, this did not take place until This event was the brainchild of Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, and was designed to provide a showcase for the world's most advanced inventions, manufactures and works of art. It was housed in the massive acre Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton.
The event attracted almost six million visitors during the five summer months it was open. Many ordinary people travelled to London for the first time on cheap-rate excursion trains.
Notable battles included those at Sebastopol, Balaclava which saw the infamous Charge of the Light Brigade and Inkerman. Russia was forced to sue for peace, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Paris in March British troops casualties were as much from poor equipment and medical care as from fighting the Russians. Following a series of insensitive British demands, members of the Bengal army mutinied in Meerut and marched towards Delhi, which they took two days later.
It was re-taken in September. Lucknow was twice besieged before being finally relieved in November. British authority was not fully restored until July and the events of the mutiny were characterised by great brutality on both sides.
The mutiny led to the end of East India Company rule in India and its replacement by direct British rule. Based in Manchester, the orchestra gave its first concert in the city's Free Trade Hall. This development indicated the growing importance attached to providing elevating cultural activities for the citizens of Britain's towns and cities. Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Saltash railway bridge across the River Tamar was a suspension bridge comprising two huge wrought iron trusses in the form of a parabola.
This bridge afforded much speedier transport to England's most remote western county. An unbroken line from London to Penzance was completed in Opened only four months before Brunel's death, the Saltash became the only suspension bridge to carry main-line trains. Charles Darwin's masterwork, which argued that all species evolved on the basis of natural selection, resulted from more than 20 years' research following a five-year journey around Cape Horn in HMS 'Beagle'.
The book created an immediate stir, since Darwin's theory appeared to contradict the bible's creation story and call into question ideas of divine providence. Despite the influence of Darwin's work, very few Victorian scientists took up an atheistic position as a result of reading it. In the debate that led to the introduction of the Post Office Savings Bank, the chancellor of the exchequer, William Gladstone, stated that the Post Office, which contained almost 3, money-order offices, would offer a convenient way of encouraging small sums to accumulate in secure accounts.
This initiative accorded with the Liberals' policy of encouraging habits of thrift and industry among what Gladstone called 'the humbler classes throughout the country'. Albert's premature death from typhoid plunged Victoria into a long period of mourning and withdrawal from public life, during which a republican movement gained popularity.
Albert had been both a restraining and a guiding force on his headstrong wife and, although never popular with the British public partly on account of his German origins, he was an able and energetic man who played an important part in the scientific and intellectual life of his adopted country. Since , the state had funded education for the poor in schools run by churches. Expenditure increased rapidly, especially after the first education inspectors were appointed in and a pupil-teacher scheme of training was implemented from By the early s, an economy-minded Liberal government wanted the state to get value for money.
Grant payments were linked to pupils' success in basic tests in reading, writing and arithmetic. The system was dubbed 'payment by results'. Joseph Lister, while Regius Professor of Clinical Surgery at Glasgow University, began experiments designed to reduce high hospital mortality rates from septic inflammation. Despite initial scepticism, Lister's methods were refined and then widely adopted.
He is regarded as the founder of modern surgical practice. Its orchestrator was Benjamin Disraeli, who permitted larger extensions to the franchise than the Liberals would have countenanced. It virtually doubled the electorate, enabling one-third of adult males in Britain and one-sixth in Ireland to vote in parliamentary elections.
In a few urban constituencies, working men were an electoral majority. A separate act for Scotland was passed in William Gladstone headed a Liberal government after defeating Benjamin Disraeli's Conservative government in a general election. Gladstone's ministry survived until and is credited with passing many reforms, especially relating to administration, the army and public health. Gladstone was to form three further administrations, resigning as prime minister for the last time in March William Gladstone's legislation put church property into the hands of commissioners, who could use it for 'social schemes', including poverty relief and the expansion of higher education.
Irish bishops no longer sat in the House of Lords. The act was designed to reduce tensions and increasing lawlessness in Ireland. The canal then became of vital strategic interest, particularly as a route to India and the Far East, and was protected by British troops from This bill, introduced by the Liberal member of parliament WE Forster, was to extend opportunities for education available to the children of the poor. The act permitted new school boards to be set up where existing education provision in 'voluntary schools', controlled by the churches, was inadequate.
A substantial growth in school building resulted, particularly in urban areas. The act did not make schooling compulsory. Ireland's Landlord and Tenant Act, passed by William Gladstone's government, attempted to address a key grievance.
The act provided for compensation to tenants evicted by landlords and it gave legal protection to customary tenant right. Tenants were also allowed to purchase their holdings if they could afford the cost. This act changed the previous legal situation, in which all property automatically transferred to the control of a husband on marriage. Similar changes did not take effect in Scotland until William Gladstone's Liberal government introduced voting by secret ballot five years after the Second Reform Act had substantially increased the size of the electorate.
This realised one of the key points of the reforming 'Chartist' petition of Voting in secret was not uncontroversial. The proposal was fiercely contested by the House of Lords, which considered it 'cowardly' and 'unmanly'. It was first employed at a by-election in Pontefract in August of the same year. India came under direct British government control in , when the remaining authority of the East India Company was dissolved. The Conservative prime minister, Benjamin Disraeli, suggested to the queen that she should be proclaimed empress.
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His motive seems mainly to have been flattery. Despite objections from the Liberal opposition, who were not consulted, the title was endorsed and Victoria used it officially from Britain, represented by Conservative Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and Robert Cecil, Marquis of Salisbury, signed a European treaty which attempted to settle problems between states in the Balkans and, in particular, to reduce perceived threats to European stability from Russian expansion.
Cyprus was leased to Britain from Turkey, strengthening its position in the Mediterranean. Disraeli declared that he had brought back 'peace with honour'. During a Force 11 gale on the River Tay, the two-year-old, two-mile railway bridge collapsed and 75 train passengers plunged to their deaths. It was the biggest structural engineering disaster in Britain.
The subsequent enquiry apportioned most of the blame to the bridge's builder, Sir Thomas Bouch, for failing to take sufficient account of the effects of wind force. The bridge was rebuilt and opened to rail traffic in July Although WE Forster's act of had greatly expanded education opportunities, and an act passed in Benjamin Disraeli's government of had set up school attendance committees, significant gaps remained.
AJ Mundella introduced a bill on behalf of William Gladstone's Liberal government which made school attendance compulsory from ages five to The eisteddfod, as a competition of Welsh bards and minstrels, had a long history dating back to at least the 10th century.
In modern times, it developed as a celebration of Welsh culture and identity from the 18th century. After the formation of the National Eisteddfod Association, a national gathering was held annually, alternating between the north and the south of Wales.
The mansion created at Cragside in Rothbury Northumberland by the Scottish architect Richard Norman Shaw was designed to incorporate every modern convenience. Built for the engineering magnate Sir William Armstrong, it was called 'the palace of a modern magician'. Swan's new electric lamps were powered by water from a local stream through a dynamo-electric generator. The second Land Act created a Land Commission for Ireland which could decide the level of 'fair rents'. The act also granted free sale of land and security of tenure. William Gladstone's Liberal government hoped, optimistically, that this legislation would take the sting out of violent agitation in Ireland.
The perpetrators were members of the 'Invincibles', an extremist branch of the 'Fenian' revolutionary organisation. The murders outraged the public in Britain and, much against his will, provoked Prime Minister William Gladstone into maintaining harsh coercive policies in Ireland. The Married Women's Property Act had been widely criticised for failing to provide sufficient safeguards for married women. A further act provided something approaching equality for women since it allowed women to acquire and retain any property deemed separate from that of their husband's.
They also received the same legal protection as husbands if they needed to defend their right to property. The third Reform Act created a uniform franchise qualification based on the Reform Acts of and As a consequence roughly two-thirds of adult males in England and Wales, three-fifths in Scotland and half in Ireland were entitled to vote in parliamentary elections.
Large numbers of adult males, such as servants, most members of the armed forces and children living in their parents' houses remained disenfranchised. This act, therefore, stopped some way short of creating a male democracy. Acting on information supplied by his son Herbert, newspapers carried reports that Prime Minister William Gladstone would support 'Home Rule' for Ireland. Although Gladstone did not confirm the reports, his Liberal government, which returned to office in February , drew up proposals for Home Rule. These provoked cabinet resignations, a split in the Liberal party and a Conservative election victory in July.
Under the Local Government Act passed by the Conservatives the previous year, responsibility for poor law relief, roads, bridges and asylum was transferred to newly-created county councils. London had its own county council, while boroughs with populations over 50, became 'county boroughs' with the same powers as county councils. This may be contributing to sufficient shear to support some organization of convection as it attempts to gradually grow upscale through the remainder of the afternoon.
If this occurs, there may be a period of increasing potential for strong surface gusts approaching severe limits along expanding, strengthening surface cold pools. Otherwise, a few downbursts appear possible, accompanied by localized potentially damaging wind gusts.
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